The Cultivator, Episode 1: Lord of the Gorgs - Part I The Orgin Of Myomis (The Cultivator )

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The price has been reduced from 7. It examines the meaning of the Sabbath in the New Testament as well as the time, place, and causes of the origin of Sunday observance. The price of this reprint has been reduced from 8. The two books are offered together at a special discount price of To purchase a copy of one or both books, send your order with your check payable to Andrews University to University Printers, Berrien Springs, Michigan Appearing with Pastor Vandeman will be his year-old daughter, Connie.

A favorite of It Is Written viewers for several years, Connie will sing "My Tribute," a well-known, beautiful song of thanksgiving and praise. He also vividly retells the gripping story of their fight for survival during that first year in America. Documentary film footage illustrates this carefully-researched message.

It Is Written cameras were on location in Plymouth Harbor when the Mayflower II, a British built replica of the original Mayflower, completed its reenactment of the original Pilgrims' voyage. In commemoration of this unique program, It Is Written has published a gift edition booklet which will be offered especially for this telecast. Information on how you can obtain a copy will be given on this Thanksgiving program.

Regular price, 4. Now through March 31, , only 3. Regular prices paper, 1. Special prices paper, 1. Box , Omaha, Nebraska Please include State sales tax where necessary, and add 7 L percent or a minimum charge of 50 cents for mailing. Prices slightly higher in Canada. It's a Loma Linda kind of picnic. Here's a delicious, healthy way to picnic. It's made from specially blended textured vegetable protein. So you get all the fun and taste you love. Without cholesterol or animal fat. No preservatives, either Then gather up the baseball, cold drinks and the old gang.

In the freezer case. This fits into life everywhere regardless of modern conditions; indeed, our modern ways of living and doing are very conducive to more and better service in personal lines. Greater emphasis is needed on this subject because we are all so prone to neglect personal witnessing in our daily contacts with men and women and youth.

The method used so much by Jesus and His disciples in that early day has been neglected too much by His disciples in this latter day. We have leaned too much on certain groups to carry on our witnessing work for us, and the cause has suffered because we have not carried out the instruction given the church in the matter of training the membership in the art of witnessing.

Our pastors would be baptizing more souls each year if more members were given training that is available to all of our churches today. Evangelism, p. Many years ago this message was given to the church "The best help that ministers can give the members of our churches is not sermonizing, but planning work for them". Testimonies, Vol. The responsibility for the conduct and success of this great witnessing work rests squarely upon every minister, every church leader, and every youth leader.

As we personally engage in this work and seek to enlist other members of the church in larger endeavor along this line, we shall see our baptismal lists increase, and new life will certainly bless the church. In she 14 married Richard Hagen. Survivors are her three daughters, Ethel, Alice and Grace; five sons, Lester, Delmer, Ralph, Maurice and Orrin; 26 grandchildren and 27 great-grandchildren. On February 1, she was united in marriage to Henley Clayburn Caskey. Elsie passed away July 12, at Milford, Iowa.

She is survived by three sons Cecil, Arthur, and Bruce; one daughter, Eunice Hinkelday; seven grandchildren; one sister and other relatives and friends. He was a member of the Brainerd church. He was laid to rest in the little cemetery about two miles south of his old home in Basswood. Left to mourn his passing are his wife Lucinda Ellen; one son, James E. Davis; one daughter, Sadie Mae, wife of Elder B. Furst; 5 grandchildren and 8 great-grandchildren. Vernon W. Anderson spent her early years in North Dakota but after marriage settled near Detroit Lakes, Minnesota.

She was the wife of the late Albert Anderson. She is survived by a son, Delbert V. Others who survive her death are two sisters, Mrs. Alma Martinson and Amanda Wassworth; one brother, Carl Berglin; four grandchildren and one great grandchild. Bernard J. Olive is survived by her husband, Charles; two sisters, Helen Wolfe and Pearl Richardson; a daughter-inlaw, Edna Sanders; a step-son, Charles Wheeling, and many grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Loved ones include his wife Elaine; two daughters, Clarice Mrs.

She joined the Seventh-day Adventist church in and remained a faithful member all her life. Survivors include two daughters, four sons, 22 grandchildren, 41 great-grandchildren, two sisters and two brothers. She was laid to rest in Sunset Memorial Park in Minneapolis. Survivors are one son and four step children Willard, Floyd, Raymond and Ned Bresee, and Millie Schlisner, fifteen grandchildren and several greatgrandchildren and great-great-grandchildren. She passed away August 13th.

In she was married to Roy C. Survivors are one daughter, Betrice; three foster sons; three grandchildren and three great-grandchildren; and two sisters. He is survived by his widow, Dorothy; one brother, Arthur; and one sister, Mrs. Nora Zillox. She was a member of the South Dakota Conference Church. Survivors include a brother, Ed Stotz; four sisters, Rose. Lizzie, Lena and Lydia. Funeral services were held in Bowdle with Elder J.

Nikkels officiating. He passed away July 25, at Council Bluffs. Peterson was married to Carrie Jensen in Jerine Deemer; nine grandchildren, two step-grandchildren, and five great-grandchildren; one sister and two brothers. Terry C. She married Jake Beck in , and lived in the Bowdon area. Survivors include her husband; a daughter, Mrs. Corrine Gillham; two granddaughters; four sisters, Mrs.

Katie Faul, Mrs. Emilia Miller, Mrs. Adeline Tebelius, and Mrs. Lillian Saulsberry; a stepmother, Mrs. Lydia Wagner; four step-sisters, Mrs. Margaret Fieghner, Mrs. Emma Wiesenberger, Mrs. Elsie Frye, and Mrs. Esther Frye; and one step-brother, Art Treft. Services were conducted in the Bowdon Country Church.

In he came to the United States with his parents and they settled in the Dakotas. Christ moved to Lincoln in Advertisements are not solicited but are published as an accommodation. Minimum charge for each insertion is 5. Full keyboard and pedal. This land has yielded bushels of corn and bushels of beans per acre. If interested contact Iowa Conference of S.

Box , West Des Moines, Iowa Year round work. Active church and church school. References required and exchanged. Phone or Experience on Diesel-powered tractors necessary. Write or phone application to Wiedemann Industries, Inc. Two bedrooms down, one bedroom apartment upstairs.

Department expanding into cardio-pulmonary, arthritis rehab and preventative medicine.

Must be California registered or eligible. Contact St. Telephone orders accepted. Request free price list and brochure. Indicate kind of instrument desired. Located in pleasant rural setting in the beautiful Napa Valley. Near schools. Sleeping bags, vests, packs, etc. Top quality materials, simple instructions. Put them together and save. Satisfaction guaranteed. Dealer inquiries invited. Free Catalogue. Sierra Kits, P.

Box N, Riverside, CA An Equal Opportunity Employer. Starts in winter as in summer. Has lubrication range of to Gains gas mileage, prolongs life of motor. Don Patterson, Summit Ave. Paul, MN Along with a choice of services we offer competitive salaries, paid days off program, paid health insurance, tuition reimbursement, an active continuing education program and a Christian working environment. Wonderfully gifted speaker on Christ Our Righteousness. Also a series on the Holy Spirit. Many other excellent speakers. Use for Family, friends or the unchurched.

Free cassette catalog. South, Hutchinson, Minnesota. Vegetarian and health foods, homemade crafts, religious records and Bibles, other items water distillers, juicers, flour mills, etc. Open , Monday and Thursday Administrative abilities desirable. Responsible for management and food preparation, including a formal dining room seating , in a health care facility in beautiful Napa Valley, California. Call collect, personnel office, St. Helena Hospital and Health Center, , ext.

Families with children may live on campus and find work in nearby cities to support themselves. Located in country near Vandiver, Alabama. Write Dr. Price Pearson, 11th Ave. Must possess administrative capabilities. Medical terminology and ability to take shorthand preferred but not mandatory. Duties include taking Medical Staff Committee minutes, processing applications, etc. We can be thankful that by His perfect life, and because of His great sacrifice, we may be saved from eternal death.

We can be thankful that Jesus is coming back to this world again. During this special season, we can be thankful for the Bible which is God's inspired word. It is through the study of this wonderful book that we can learn of God's love for us, and of the great sacrifice that He was willing to make in behalf of man. The Bible reveals God's will for man in this world today for which we can be thankful.

His will is revealed in the commandments given in the Bible. We generally think of the ten commandments as the commandments and yet there are other commandments that possibly would be very closely related to the ten. By observing God's law, man demonstrates his respect and his love for God.

We can be thankful that God has left on record for us the transcript of His character revealed in His law. God reveals in His letter to man that He desires for man to set aside the seventh day for worship and rest. God gave the seventh day as the memorial of His mighty power to create this world, and then, as a memorial of His power to recreate His image in us if we will allow Him to do so. We can be thankful for the teachings as we understand them from God's word.

The Seventh-day Adventist Church finds its modern beginning back in the 's and 40's when large numbers of people throughout America and Europe became deeply absorbed in the doctrine of Christ's return. This interest was brought about by the prophetic time references in Daniel and elsewhere in the Bible. Out of this early Adventist group developed the Seventh-day Adventist denomination which was finally organized in As we understand it, the work of the Seventh-day Adventist Church is to continue the task begun in Reformation times.

Seventh-day Adventists base their faith and practice wholly on the Bible. This is a very closely knit, world-wide, Christian organization with specialized departments, a trained and ordained clergy, and a very sound system of finance. We can be thankful that God has called us into this wonderful movement of His that is designed to finish His work in these last days.

As we think of some of the accomplishments of this little group in such a short time, we are reminded that our membership is just short of three million around the world, with nearly 20, churches and almost 5, schools. This represents the largest world-wide Protestant educational system. Twelve colleges and two universities are operated in North America. Though begun in a very small way, as has already been mentioned, the church today is working in countries of the countries of the world as listed by the United Nations organization.

We are indeed thankful that our church is presently working with different language groups. We are operating 51 publishing houses that produce literature in different languages. Of course, we can greatly rejoice in the fact that last year we sent new missionaries to foreign soil. To support our foreign missions program, last year our members gave nearly fifty million dollars.

We can be thankful for the good neighbor program operated by the Seventh-day Adventist Church. The Adventist church operates hospitals and sanitariums. During the last year, over five million patients were treated in these institutions. It is good to be a part of an on-going organization, and at this Thanksgiving time, we enthusiastically sing, "Praise God From Whom All Blessings Flow".

As we review just a little bit of what God's church is today, and how far it has come from the very small beginning, we can most assuredly see that God's hand has been in the church. As a member of God's remnant church today, we should pause to thank God for His goodness to us, His kindness to us, and His many blessings. Then, we should also pause to dedicate and rededicate our lives and our energies to the finishing of God's work in this world so that Jesus Christ can come back to this world to claim His own.

And at that time, may we each be ready to meet the Lord and to go to that Heavenly land that He is now preparing for those who love Him. Crowson Editor Show less. White, 1. Miss V. Merriam, Edit ors. HE summer is ended, vacation is o'er, And back to his books comes the schoolboy once more; With a sigh of regret in his lingering good-by To the hills and the meadows and fair summer sky, To the sweet, idle hours vacation has brought, And the pleasures Dame Nature his young heart has taught, To all and to everything joyous and gay, Which made his vacation so happy each day.

But earth cannot always lie idly at rest With the sunbeams and shadows at play on her breast. There is work to be done, for the harvest is near, And the white-haired old winter-king soon will be here. The grasses and flowers will turn them to seed, Nature's wisest provision for next summer's need; Thro' day and thro' night she will work with a will, This busy Dame Nature, who never is still. So cease your regrets for the summer now past, And turn to your lessons and studies at last; Remember, my boy, there's a ladder to climb, Which lead,.

At one time, Niagara Falls attracted multitudes of pleasure-seekers, and excited the admiration of all beholders. But the mind soon tires of familiar sights and scenes, and seeks a change, and a trip to the " Falls " is now considered dull and destitute of real pleasure as compared with a journey across the " plains " and a climb through the mountains of the " far West. The high peak in the distance, known as " Gunnison's Butte," is twenty-seven hundred feet high. It received its name from Lieutenant Gunnison, of the regular army, who was killed in that vicinity by the Indians a number of No.

The reader can see that its top is represented as penetrating the clouds. The grandest sight in nature that one could possibly enjoy would be to stand on the top of such a mountain and watch the lightning flash from the storm-clouds as they gather beneath his feet, while above and around him the sun is shining in all its strength and glory. The writer well remembers, when riding over the "Divide," encountering such a storm. He passed from sunshine up into it, and then down on the other side into sunshine and dry weather again.

There is one thing of which we wish to speak, that may seem strange to some of our readers. The higher one goes up, the longer time it requires to cook anything by boiling. In some places it takes a number of hours to boil potatoes so that they will be soft enough to eat.

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The reason for this is that at those extreme points of altitude water boils at very low temperature, or, in other words, it requires but little heat to boil water, and therefore, when at the boiling point, the water does not contain heat enough to cook as rapidly as at less altitude. In the foreground of the picture can be seen a group of men standing by a survey. This river takes its rise, principally, in the Wyoming Mountains, flows in a southerly direction, and empties into the Colorado River, through which it finds its way into the Gulf of California. Green River flows through green shale a soft slaty rock, which is supposed to contain arsenic or chloride of copper.

This becomes detached by drainage, and is deposited in the bottom of the stream, where it fastens itself to the pebbles, thus causing the water to have a green color. In viewing the scenes of nature, one can scarcely refrain from exclaiming, as did the Psalmist, " 0 Lord, how manifold are thy works I In wisdom bast thou made them all ; the earth is full of thy riches.

They shall speak of the glory of thy kingdom, and talk of thy power. The following lines were written by Sr. Mary Martin, who has for several years cared for the children -of Eld. Canright,Genevieve and Addle. We are sure that all our little readers will be interested in this lovely picture of "The Morning of Life," and the closing stanzas must touch a tender chord in the heart of many parents.

Looking after hens' nests "Only pattern eggs" Eyes as blue as berries, When the bird's nest's found. Lips as red as cherries "It grows on the ground. I have learned 'most ev'rything, Auntie, haven't I " Boy has graduated, No diploma written. He "can count to twenty," And " catch the wildest kitten. Cyclopedia's useless, Dictionary's dumb. And the nestsoh, the pain of the learning, But you're young, and your hearts have not known, Although fashioned with love and with beauty, They are naught when the birdies have flown.

And the pictures the fire has painted, Of what you most think, love, or care, God pity, if when you are older, All you've wished or have hoped is still there. If you ever can tell with your wisdom, For all things the "what," and the "why," It will take bitter lessons to gain it, And you'll have to be older than I. But as on. Kingdom of Belgium, lying on the northern coast of Europe, and wedged in between the two great States, Germany and France, is at once the most free, the most prosperous, and the most thrifty nation in Europe.

It is a young nation, though inhabited by the Flemings, a very ancient people. Down to the year , its territory was included in the kingdom of the' United Netherlands, and was ruled over by the king of Holland. In that year, the city of Brusselsone of the brightest and fairest cities in Europe revolted against the Dutch crown ; and after the Dutch troops had failed to put down the revolt, the present little kingdom of Belgium was crowded oat of his dominions, westward of the Rhine.

This was done by the intervention of the great powers, especially by those of England and France. A free monarchy was at length created, and a very wise and able prince, Leopold of Saxe-Coburgthe widower of the Princess Charlotte of Englandwas chosen as the first king of Belgium. From the very first, Leopold's reign was a successful one. It insured complete liberty to his busy subjects; it established education ; and it gave every scope to the skillful industries of the people. Belgium was protected in its independence by England, and has been so protected to this day.

Any threat of violence against Belgium would be at once resented by England, even to the point of war. Leopold molded his little State on the example of the English Constitution ; and there is no other European State which, in its government, so closely resembles that of England. When the great revolution broke out in , which, beginning in France, spread more or less over all Europe, Belgium for a moment caught the infection. There were disturbances in several of its towns, and in Brussels, the capital, an attempt was made to raise barricades, and to overthrow the monarchy.

But this was soon put a stop to, in a very THE little Vol. He said to his people that there was no need of their rising in revolt against him. The crown is a burden to me. I do not need any force to compel me to give it up. The people overwhelmingly declared that they desired nothing so much as that the good Leopold should continue to be their king; and so he remained until his death, in , at a ripe old age. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Leopold II. A few weeks ago, the Belgians celebrated, amid bonfires, music, illuminations, festivals, reviews, and balls, the fiftieth anniversary of their independence as a nation.

The stately old Flemish cities, Bruges, and Ghent, and Antwerp, and Brussels, and Mechlin, were alive with many crowds, and gay with festoons and flowers. And well might this peaceful and industrious people rejoice; for while Europe has been again and again involved in war, and while there is scarcely a country in it that has not witnessed the ravages and desolation of battle, and borne the fiery ordeal of revolt, Belgium has waxed rich and prosperous, and has dwelt happily in the security of peace.

Her population has increased more rapidly than that of any other country; she has been obliged to keep up but a small army; her cities, hoary with age, and rich in every romantic association of the past, have grown, and have constantly added to their industries; and the freedom of every Belgian has been carefully maintained and securely guarded.

It is no secret that the mighty Empire of Germany covets Belgium as one of her provinces; but it is to be hoped that it will be long before this thrifty and free little kingdom will be swallowed up by her big and grasping neighbor. Youth's Companion. A LITTLE over a century ago, in the year l', a Jewish lad, named Meyer Anseim, entered the city of Frankfort, Germany, barefoot and carrying on his back a small bundle of rags, his entire store -of earthly wealth.

Industrious and wide awake, he soon found employment, and carefully hoarded his meager earnings. With the money saved he afterward opened a small banking institution. In this he prospered, and acquired money rapidly. The sign over his door was a little shield, painted red. The word for shield in German is schild, and the word for red is roth.

The two words, red shield, thus became, when joined together, rothschild, and that became the name which Meyer Anseim after ward bore,a name which is familiar to many of our readers on account of the great wealth which has become the possession of the Rothschild family. What did he say to him Dan. How do we know that he did not continue of the dream, he gave Nebuchadnezzar excellent advice. He said, " Wherefore, 0 king, let my to follow it 7. Repeat his proud words. What did he show by speaking thus thy sins by righteousness, and thine iniquities 9.

What happened while the words were yet by showing mercy to the poor; if it may be a in the king's mouth lengthening of thy tranquility. What did the voice say about Nebuchaduchadnezzar had done very wrong in some nezzar's kingdom What did it say should be done to him things, he had been very kind to Daniel, and What lesson was he to learn by this exhad really many good qualities. Daniel loved perience him, no doubt ; but he knew that there was no How soon did this punishment come upon way for the king to escape the punishment him threatened in the dream but to turn from his What is said of his appearance after he had been in this condition some time Verse What do insane people sometimes imagine We are not told whether Nebuchadnezzar What are they then determined to do tried to follow Daniel's counsel or not.

If he What is thought in regard to Nebuchaddid, he soon forsook it ; for about a year after, nezzar's case How long was he in this condition Y as he was walking in his palace, or, as the What did he do as soon as his understandmargin reads, upon the palace, he said, " Is not ing returned unto him this great Babylon, that I have built What had he to be thankful for besides by the might of my power, and for the honor of the return of his reason How did he show his gratitude my majesty " By these words the king showed What did he say of the works and ways the pride of his heart, and that he thought all his glory had come through his own wisdom ; of God What did he say of God's power but " While the word was in the king's mouth, They shall C.

XIII-C xv. Wito were the parents of John the Baptist times shall pass over thee, until thou know 2. Describe Gabriel's visit to Zacharias. How was Zacharias convinced of the divine authority of the angel's message men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will. On what mission was Gabriel sent to NazNebuchadnezzar had had abundance of time areth about six months after this to repent since the warning given him in his 5. What did Gabriel say to Zacharias about dream a year before, and now his punishment the work that should be done by the son that was to come without delay.

The Bible says, was promised him 6. What prophetic words did Zacharias utter " The same hour was the thing fulfilled upon Nebuchadnezzar ; and he was driven from men, in regard to him soon after his birth 7. What called Joseph and Mary to Bethand did eat grass as oxen, and his body was wet lehem with the dew of heaven, till his hairs were 8. What were the best accommodations they grown like eagle's feathers, and his nails like could find for the night 9. What prophecy was fulfilled by the birth bird's claws. Describe the visit of the angels to the to be beasts of some kind, and are determined shepherds who were keeping their flocks near to go with those beasts, eating just what they Bethlehem.

What precious tidings did they bring eat, sleeping with them at night, and acting as Repeat their song of praise. It is supposed Describe the visit of the shepherds to Beththat this was the case with Nebuchadnezzar. He was in this condition seven years, just as it By what outward token was he designated had been shown in the dream, and then his as a child of Abraham When was he presented at the temple, reason came back to him.

He says, " And at and why the end of the days, I Nebuchadnezzar lifted up What testimonies to his Messiahship were mine eyes unto heaven, and mine understand- borne on that occasion 1 ing returned unto me, and I blessed the Most What distinguished visitors came from the High, and I praised and honored him that liveth countries of the East What probably led them to suppose that forever, whose dominion is an everlasting dothis strange star betokened the birth of Christ minion, and his kingdom is from generation to What place in Judea did they first visit generation At the same time my reason For what purpose How was their question answered returned unto me ; and for the glory of my What instructions did Herod privately kingdom, mine honor and brightness returned give them unto me ; and my counselors and my lords What secret purpose did he have in mind sought unto me ; and I was established in my Describe the visit of the wise men to Bethkingdom, and excellent majesty was added unto lehem.

What course did Herod take when he me. How was he thwarted in accomplishing words to express it. He says, "Now I Nebuchad- what he had in view Describe the closing scenes of Herod's life. What disposition was made of the kingHeaven, all whose works are truth, and his dom over which he ruled ways judgment ; and those that walk in pride Describe Joseph's return from Egypt. What led him to settle in Nazareth he is able to abase. A part of the great Arabian Desert lies between them. The southern part of Babylonia, bordering on the Persian Gulf, was called Chaldea ; and sometimes the entire country was called Chaldea, instead of Babylonia.

To the north and northeast of Babylonia, lay Mesopotamia. In Mesopotamia was the country of Padan-aram, where Laban lived, and where Jacob spent so many years of toil. Farther west was Syria, with Damascus as its capital. North-east of Babylon was Assyria. The city of Nineveh was in AsElyria on the river Tigris, and was the capital of the great Assyrian empire, which for many years ruled over Babylon, Persia, and many other nations. It was the Assyrians, under Shalmaneser, that subdued the kingdom of Israel, and carried its people into captivity. Still farther north, near the Black Sea, is the beautiful country of Armenia, where may still be seen the mountains of Ararat, on which the ark rested.

It is generally supposed that the garden of Eden was situated somewhere in Armenia. On the east of Babylonia were the countries of Elam and Susiana. The kingdoms of Babylon and Assyria are very ancient. From Gen. Asshur began to build Nineveh about the same time, and thus laid the foundation of the Assyrian empire. We read in the eleventh chapter of Genesis of the building of the city and tower of Babel. Babylon is the Greek word for Babel ; so both words refer to the same place. In the time of Abraham the king of Shinar is mentioned among the kings that came up to fight against the king of Sodom, and others in the vale of Siddim.

Since Babylon was in the plain of Shinar, it is probable that the king of Shinar was the king of Babylon. Babylon was long ruled by Assyria, but finally became independent. Just how large the city of Babylon was, it is now hard to tell ; for ancient records do not agree in regard to it. It is generally supposed to have been about sixty miles in circumference, and to have been surrounded by a wall as much as eighty feet thick, and more than three hundred feet high.

It had one hundred gates of brass, and its walls were surmounted by two hundred and fifty towers. The river Euphrates ran through it from end to end, and it was surrounded by an immense ditch, filled with water from the river. Babylon reached its highest pitch of glory during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. Being verbs Being words, such as am, is, are, was, and were, all come from the verb to be. They link someone or something with the words that describe them. Helping verbs Verbs such as have, be, will, must, may, and do, are sometimes used with other verbs in a sentence. They show how possible or necessary it is that an action takes place.

The second line of the entry shows how the verb is written in three different tenses— the present, the continuous present, and the past tense. These tenses are used like this: They were both very angry. She runs to school every morning. It may rain tomorrow. I do like sandwiches! When a verb, such as hang, appears in this dictionary, the entry looks like this: entry has its part of speech printed below it in italic type. The parts of speech that are labeled in the dictionary verbs, adverbs, adjectives, interjections, prepositions, and nouns are explained on these two pages.

Present tense: She hangs up her T-shirt. Continuous present tense: She is hanging up her T-shirt. Past tense: She hung up her T-shirt. Adverbs can tell us how, when, where, how often, or how much. Slowly, yesterday, upward, and very are all adverbs. Cat, teacher, spoon, and city are all nouns. Nouns do not have to be things that you can see—words like truth and geography are also nouns.

Adjectives An adjective is a word that is used to describe a noun. Fat, yellow, sticky, dark, and hairy are all adjectives. Interjections Interjections are words such as hello and goodbye that can be used on their own, without being part of a full sentence. Exclamations, such as Oh! Prepositions Prepositions, such as in, with, behind, and on, show how one person or thing relates to another. Comparatives and superlatives If you want to compare a person or thing with another, you often use an adjective in the comparative or superlative form.

Taller, easier, better, and quicker are comparatives. Tallest, easiest, best, and quickest are superlatives. They played happily with the balloon. The present came in a round box tied with ribbon. Adjective: This ball is big. The car was big, red, and shiny. A tall, green, prickly cactus. Comparative: This ball is bigger. Superlative: This ball is the biggest. She held the ball above her head. Conjunctions Conjunctions are words such as and, but, and of, that are used to join parts of sentences together.

Rabbits are normally active in the evening or at night. They eat grass, roots, and leaves. A swimming race. He was making a racket with his drums. An airport radar screen. High amounts of radioactivity can be harmful to living things. They tested for radioactivity outside the nuclear power plant. In her rage, she slammed the door shut. The police made a raid on the house, arresting two women. Use the rail to help you climb the stairs. We traveled by rail around Europe. The chart shows the annual rainfall in South America. The party held a political rally in the park.

Some kinds of rat eat plants, while others eat small animals. They can gnaw through stone, wood, and even metal with their strong front teeth. Ostriches can run at a rate of 30 miles 50 km per hour. The vacation resort charges high rates for its apartments. Most pages in the book look like the double page from the letter R section shown below. There are also 26 full-page entries in the dictionary that provide a whole page of pictures and vocabulary on a theme. The page shown here is about cars. Full-page entries All the pictures and labels on a full-page entry are linked to the main headword.

This page shows different car types, with their various parts labeled. New letter section Each new letter section starts with a big letter, like this R. Word box Families of linked words are enclosed in a box. All the words in this box start with the same word, rain. The highlighted letter tells you that you are in the R section. The headwords in this dictionary are listed in alphabetical order— the same order as the letters of the alphabet. Words that begin with A are grouped at the start of the dictionary, followed by B words, and so on up to Z.

So cat comes before cot, because A comes before O in the alphabet. If words start with the same two letters, then the third letter decides the order. So radius comes before raft, because D comes before F. Headword This is the word you are looking up. The headword is printed in heavy, black letters at the start of the entry. Guide word The right-hand guide word, rate, tells you that this is the last word on this page. Here, rams is the plural of the headword ram.

Tenses of verbs These three forms of the verb share show how it is written in the present, continuous present, and past tenses. These tenses are explained on page 4. Other meanings are listed below. Opposite This tells you the word that is the opposite of the headword. For example, common is the opposite of the headword rare. Comparisons The two forms of an adjective that are shown here are called the comparative and superlative. They are explained on page 5. It respells the word so that you can sound out the letters. Part of the guide is in heavy, black type. This shows you which part of the word to stress, or say more loudly.

Related words Other words that are related to the headword are listed here. This related word, radioactive, is the adjective that comes from the headword radioactivity. Part of speech This shows whether the word is a noun, verb, adjective, interjection, adverb, or preposition. Find out more about parts of speech on pages 4—5. In the sample sentence the headword is always written in heavy, black type like this: shared.

Headword The headword is printed at the start of the entry. This shows you how to spell the word. They used the log as a ram to break down the door. You could use the alphabet at the side of the page to help you sort them out. For more help, turn to page 6, where alphabetical order is explained in detail. See if you can solve these word puzzles, using your dictionary to help you. The games will help you learn how to use the dictionary quickly and easily. You can play all of the games on your own, but you can also play with a friend.

Try giving a point for each correct answer and then see which of you gets the highest score. The answers to all the puzzles are somewhere in this dictionary. Have fun! Dictionary games. The two words that go with each pair sound the same but are spelled differently. True or false? Can you tell which are true and which are false? A mosaic is a picture or pattern made of small squares of colored stone.

Sound-unlikes This is the opposite of the game above. The two words that go with these pairs of pictures are spelled the same, but sound different. An iguana is a large lizard found mainly in Central and South America. An amphibian is an animal that can live in water and on land. A plumber is a person who repairs the glass in broken windows. An elephant is a huge mammal that lives in Europe and North America. A harp is a musical instrument that you hit with sticks or your hands to make a noise. A stethoscope is an instrument that is used by doctors for looking in your ears.

Can you match the right verb to each of the pictures? There are more verbs than pictures, so choose carefully. Check your answers by looking up the words in the dictionary. If you get stuck, the special full-page entries in the dictionary will help you. The answers are all in the dictionary. Which one is it? Which mammal gnaws down trees to build dams in rivers?

Look for a word beginning with b. What are emeralds, sapphires, and rubies? Look for a page of sparkly things. Which word connects an egg, a nut, and a crab? Look on page What is the opposite of few? Check on page What is the name of a planet and also the name of the silver-colored metal used in thermometers? Look for a word beginning with m on page Which animal has withers, hocks, and a forelock?

Look for a page of large, plant-eating mammals. Look for a page of vessels that travel on water. Each of these groups of pictures illustrates three different meanings of the same word. Check in the dictionary to see if you are right. Remember that there can be lots of different ways of spelling the same sound. He had the ability to play many instruments at once. We talked about the play. About to leave. There were about people at the circus. Above her head. She went abroad for her vacation.

He was absent from school because he had a cold. A sponge absorbs liquid. She looked absurd leaving for school in her pajamas. She had a foreign accent. He spilled the juice, but it was an accident. A stop watch gives accurate time. She accused him of lying. Her tooth ached. Some acids can burn you. Across the bridge. He was acting very strangely. This mug has been adapted so that a baby can drink from it. Add cherries to the mixture. She adjusted her belt. She admired her new hair style.

A ticket admits you to the movie theater. Her long legs gave her an advantage. Exploring the river was a real adventure. The tortoise moved slowly. He was made student adviser. An aerial photograph. The drought badly affected the harvest. We can afford to go away on vacation this year. He was afraid of mice. He was after me in the line. The cat ran after the mouse. The fans cheered when their team scored again.

Against the fence. She was against the decision. The Iron Age. Cats can be aggressive if they are frightened. The runner was in agony when he broke his leg. One form of agriculture in Thailand is rice growing. The ship ran aground in the storm. He walked on ahead of the others. The helicopter came to the aid of the stranded walkers. Aiming at the target.

We aim to please. A layer of air surrounds Earth. The door is ajar. A photograph album. The dog looked very alert. These brothers look alike. Flowers need water to stay alive. He ate all the cake himself. He has an allergy to cats. Her parents allowed her to stay up and watch the program. The bottle is almost empty. He was alone on the island. We walked along the beach. He read the letter aloud. She was already eating breakfast when he woke up. Sue is also coming with us. I have altered my story to give it a happy ending. There are eight apples altogether. He is always playing loud music.

I will always remember our vacation. An amazing hat. Her ambition is to travel to the Moon. There are poppies growing among the corn. The cartoon amused them. Archaeopteryx is an ancestor of birds like the hoatzin. Wedding anniversary. Independence Day is an annual holiday. An anonymous letter. Do you have another pen? I think this one is broken. Do you want another cookie? The males and egg-laying females have wings. Antelopes eat grass and other plants. It might be cloudy, but we could go for a picnic anyway. Have you seen my pet mouse anywhere? Standing with feet apart. Apes have no tails and can walk on two legs.

The Sun appeared from behind the clouds. He has a huge appetite. A dental appointment. The train slowed down as it approached the station. Does your mom approve of your new shoes?

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The approximate number of marbles in the jar is This is a play area. The wood covers a large area. I left my bag around here. For miles around. We walked around the city. We sat around the table. The plane arrived at the airport. The female ash produces winged seeds. The wood is hard and strong. She felt ashamed about teasing her little brother. Ask your dad if you can come with us. I assembled a model boat.

They assembled in the hall. He assisted the customer with his coat. An assortment of buttons. She astonished the crowd by winning the race. The dark room had a gloomy atmosphere. Attached with a paper clip. They attempted to climb the wall, but had to give up. I attended school for 11 years. Pay attention in class! Stand at attention.

Full text of "The dawn of civilization : Egypt and Chaldæa"

The museum attracts many visitors. Blinking is automatic. Automatic doors. Autumn follows summer and comes before winter. It is the time when the leaves on some trees change color and fall to the ground. It is often wide and sometimes has a line of trees down each side. He was of average height for his age. My grades were above average. He eats 14 apples a week, an average of 2 a day. The car swerved to avoid the dog. I stayed awake all night.

A rosette is an award. He became aware that someone was watching him. The teacher was away today. I put all my games away. A newborn foal looks awkward on its feet. Baboons live on the ground and eat plants and small animals.

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I am going to the store. I fell backward into a prickly bush. Some cause disease, while others help your body. Some bacteria help break down food in your stomach. Stealing is very bad. I have a bad earache. The food had gone bad. Each player uses a racket to hit a shuttlecock over a net see sport on page Pies, cakes, and bread are baked.

A baker bakes bread. The tightrope walker balanced on the high wire. A bald head. A summer ball. Bamboo can be used to make garden poles and furniture. Smoking is banned on public transportation. Bananas grow in hot, damp regions. My shoes were a real bargain in the sale. The police placed a barrier across the road. The winning team is the one that scores the most runs see sport on page Basins are often used for washing. Bats live in caves and dark places and eat insects, fruit, or small animals.

They rest hanging upside down see mammal on page Conductors of orchestras and band leaders use different types of batons to keep time. All bears eat meat, but some also eat honey, roots, plant buds, berries, and fruit. This plant bears red berries. Can that branch bear your weight? My friend beat me at chess. She beat the eggs. My heart is beating loudly. A metronome ticks with a steady beat.

What a beautiful view! Beavers eat bark, roots, and twigs. A tadpole becomes a frog. Bees feed on pollen, nectar, and the honey they make from nectar. They collect the honey that the bees make. Some beetles eat small insects; others eat wood and plants. The dog begged for a piece of meat. The story begins in a castle. Our class behaved well at the zoo.

She stood behind her friend. That book belongs to me. Below her waist. She bent over to touch her toes. Bends in the road. The ball is beside her. You are good at science but he is better. Between her knees. Beware of the dog. The hills lay beyond the river. Bicycle can be shortened to bike.

The jacket is too big for him. The waiter brought us the bill at the end of our meal. The new education bill will be discussed in Congress today. Smoke billowed out from the chimneys. Most paper is biodegradable. The mouse nibbled a bit of cheese. Strong coffee can taste bitter. A black night. The male has black feathers and the female has brown feathers.

She always blames me for letting the toast burn. The last word has been left blank. A blast of cold air came in through the window. Bleach can burn your skin. My nose started to bleed when I fell over. Some blind people have guide dogs. The bright light made me blink. Tight shoes give me blisters. The road was blocked by the fallen tree. Blond is used for boys and men, and blonde is used for girls and women. Blood carries nutrients and oxygen to our skin and muscles. Fruit trees bloom in the spring. He blew up the balloon.

The view through the window was blurred by rain. He boasted about his money. His voice boomed out through the loudspeaker. Boomerangs were used in the past as a weapon by Australian Aboriginals. She bored us for weeks by telling the same joke. Microcattle can also be penned and fed cut-and-carry forage more easily than can larger cattle, and more of them can be maintained on the same amount of feed. This permits more continuous production and less financial hardship when an animal perishes. Small cattle may require less labor because they are generally easier to handle, herd, confine, and transport.

They usually have few problems with calving, and as a rule require little or no assistance. Some microcattle have unusual tolerances to disease. In Africa, for instance, there are breeds that tolerate or resist trypanosomiasis, a parasitic disease that makes large areas of that continent uninhabitable for most other cattle breeds. Others seem more tolerant of internal or external parasites, theileriosis east coast fever , rinderpest, or other afflictions. When given quality forage and supplemental feeding, small unimproved cattle may not match the overall productivity of the large, highly developed breeds.

Their greatest potential may prove to be for traditional husbandry and for grazing marginal areas where survival is more important than feed efficiency. In Mexico, researchers are deliberately creating microcattle. He and his colleagues have miniaturized cows by selecting the smallest specimens out of a herd of normal-sized Brahman cattle and breeding them with one another.

After five generations, adult females average kg adult males kg. A few of the smallest cows are now only 60 cm tall and kg in weight. Merely one-fifth of normal weight, they are shorter than the turkeys that share the barnyard with them. Indeed, they even get lost in the grassy pastures so that the farmers cannot see them. This program seems to have yielded a productive animal that can be cheaply and easily maintained in a small space.

Berruecos has demonstrated that the tiny cows can be stocked on one-third the area needed to support one normal-sized cow. He reports that they are giving remarkable amounts of milk: up to four lifers a day, compared with six lifers from their full-sized counterparts. On a feed-intake to weight-gain basis, the tiny cattle are no less efficient than their normal-sized counterparts.

Although 17 years have gone into the selection of what Berruecos calls his "bonsai cattle," the process is not yet finished. Future goals include testing embryo transplants to see if one normal-sized cow can support multiple "microfetuses" possibly as many as eight. This would help to rapidly increase the numbers of the miniature form, which weigh merely kg at birth. All in all, the Mexican researchers see miniaturization as a new option for governments and farmers increasingly squeezed by shrinking farm land and rising production costs.

Small livestock they say, are a way to produce more food on less land faster. For example, a campesino with almost no land can have one or two bonsais, but could never maintain a standard-sized cow. Their adaptability and robustness make microcattle worthy of preservation, study, and greater use, and they should be incorporated into many ongoing programs. Selective breeding, although infrequently attempted, can probably improve productivity significantly.

Records of breed history should be established, and unusual or special characteristics noted and the information disseminated. Original distribution of wild cattle and banteng Based on Mason , In areas where small, indigenous breeds are being replaced, representative populations should be maintained and studied to increase understanding of their adaptive diversity and to retain a genetic storehouse for the future. West African coastal forests, and inland.

Female kg; male kg. Adaptation to harsh, humid climates and good resistance to trypanosomiasis and other diseases allow these small animals to exist where other cattle die. They are perhaps the smallest cattle of all often weighing less than kg. In the areas of worst disease and highest rainfall, this hardy animal is often found thriving, but half wild. Muturu Nigeria. This notable subtype is slightly larger. It is the most trypanotolerant of all cattle, showing no symptoms or loss of vitality.

It is widely kept, mostly as a village scavenger and often as a pet, and yields a high percentage of meat. West Africa. These active, stocky animals utilize low-quality forage, produce good beef, and are used as light draft oxen. Milk production, though poor, improves with feeding level. N'Dama mature early and are exceptionally fertile, and they have already become important in breeding programs.

In the least hospitable areas, N'Damas ranging down to kg are often the only cattle that can remain productive. Southeastern Europe. A humpless multipurpose breed - draft, milk, and beef - that is exceptionally hardy. The milk is high in butterfat. Possibly adaptable to the subtropics. It is rapidly being lost to crossbreeding. Zebus are among the most important tropical domestic animals.

However, the dwarfs are not well known, although in many areas they are preferred, especially as draft animals. Zebus use less water, even though their sweat glands are larger and more numerous than those of most other cattle. All have a low basal metabolism and resist heat well.

In general, they also have high resistance to ticks and other parasites. Taiwan Black Taiwan. Well adapted to poor tropical conditions, these work animals are also used for meat. Kedah-Kelantan Malaysia. Hardy, well adapted cattle with exceptional fertility on a poor diet, both sexes are used as draft animals as well as sources of meat and cash. Sinhala Dwarf Zebu Sri Lanka. An ancient type of zebu, preferred for its handiness in cultivating small paddies and terraced fields.

Nuba Dwarf Sudan. These work animals are well proportioned but are not slaughtered for meat, and milk production is low. Although tolerant to trypanosomiasis, their numbers have dwindled because of crossbreeding. Small Zebu Somalia. These small native cattle are used for beef, milk, and for work.

They are well adapted to poor feed in a desolate environment. These widespread, small-humped cattle are very hardy. They produce beef and are generally milked, with surplus production about kg daily. Resistant to many parasites, they also have a gentle disposition and make good work animals. A highly variable, long-entrenched, small, East-African zebu with some nonzebu blood. Pastoralists favor it because of its hardiness. Although slow-maturing, it is well-fleshed, can yield excellent beef, and some types are milked.

Mashona Zimbabwe. This hardy zebusanga type see below is widespread in drier areas and has a high resistance to disease and parasites. Since the s, it has been bred for beef production and selected animals now weigh more than kg. Mini-Brahman Mexico. Downsized from kg Brazilian zebus through selective breeding by Mexican researchers, these gentle animals are reported to yield two-thirds as much milk liters daily as the parent stock. Because of much higher stocking rates on grass, production per hectare is reportedly greater than with full-sized animals see sidebar, page Central and South America.

Descendants of Spanish and Portuguese cattle imported over years ago, "criollo" cattle have adapted to a wide range of harsh climates. Many varieties are small: mature females often weigh kg or less. They sometimes produce little beef or milk under traditional conditions and management, but they are extremely hardy and survive when other cattle perish. Through importation and crossbreeding, many local types have been lost or are threatened. Chinampo Baja California, Mexico. Extremely tolerant of wild desert conditions, these docile criollo cattle exist largely on scrub and cactus.

They get most of their water from succulent plants, have a low metabolic rate and body temperature, and are mostly active at night. Genetically isolated for more than years, the Florida Scrub is very hardy in harsh, subtropical conditions. It has good resistance to ticks and screwworm, and can subsist on forage with a high roughage content.

This type - an ancient cross between longhorns or shorthorns and humped animals - is found throughout eastern and southern Africa. It weighs from to kg or more. Some types have been selectively bred or crossed with European cattle and are quite productive. Bavenda Transvaal, South Africa. This hardy and disease tolerant tropical variety is small and prolific. It is generally used for draft, barter, and beef. However, it has been crossbred with larger animals so frequently that the smaller types are almost extinct; most "Bavendas" now weigh more than kg.

Ovambo' Northeastern Namibia. A calm and docile animal with a small hump, it is used by seasonal pastoralists for beef and milk. Nilotic Sudan. These cattle of southern Sudan show great variation in size, partly due to environmental factors. They are generally resistant to local parasites and worms, have good potential for increased beef production, and their milk is very important locally. These two types are small, humped meat animals that graze the sparse savanna and are very drought resistant. Little scientific information exists about them.

Middle East. Small types female kg; male kg are used for meat and some milk, especially in Lebanon. There are many local forms with variable appearance, but all have small humps. Well adapted to grazing sparse vegetation on rough land, they are becoming rare due to crossbreeding. A widespread type often recrossed with Indian zebu animals, they are bred to be small. They are thrifty creatures that maintain themselves well on poor forage. Bulls make sure-footed draft animals on rough ground and slopes, and the cows are milked.

Less than kg. These humpless cattle are used as pack animals and can tolerate poor forage and high altitudes. Southwest and south China. In the subtropics and tropics, small multipurpose types of Yellow Cattle withstand high temperature and humidity. They are used mainly for work and meat, and seem well adapted to poor feed, harsh conditions, and rugged terrain.

The Chowpei kg is a hardy working breed of more temperate areas in Hubei Province. A yellowish-brown Cheju Island native that has almost no calving difficulty, it is well adapted to poor grazing conditions in harsh environments and is docile and obedient. An ancient cross between humped cattle and the banteng see sidebar , these heat- and disease resistant hybrids also have good grazing and mothering ability, and are kept in the most extreme humid tropical environments.

Breeding for fighting and racing has given them a poor disposition. Ireland and North America. This breed can be traced back to eighteenth-century Ireland and is believed to have been developed by peasant farmers living on rough land. It is exceptionally hardy and produces both milk and meat. In North America, it has become popular among city folk who acquire country property, as this microbreed is particularly well suited to their usually tiny farms. The banteng Bos Javanicus is a small Southeast Asian bovine with a promising future. The two will interbreed, but the hybrid offspring are normally sterile.

Although almost entirely neglected by the animal science community, the banteng is remarkable for an ability to thrive under hot, humid, and disease-ridden conditions where cattle often grow poorly. The sexes are easily distinguished: males are jet black, females are golden brown. Both have bright white socks and rumps as if they had been freshly whitewashed.

Wild banteng are found in remote areas of countries from Burma to Indonesia. But only Indonesia has used it as a farm animal so far. It has more than 1. Indonesian farmers value the animal's agility, which allows them to cultivate Relds too narrow for cattle to turn the prow. In addition, gourmets consider banteng meat the tastiest of all. Indonesia appreciates the banteng so much that it has established a genetic sanctuary on the island of Bali - banning cattle in order to maintain the banteng's genetic purity. Outside Indonesia, only a few scientists have studied this animal, but it seems clear that it is particularly useful under tropical conditions.

In heat and humidity, it thrives; even when cattle are starving, one rarely sees a skinny banteng. And demand for its meat is never ending. More than 90 percent of the world's nearly half billion goats Capra hircus are found in developing countries; many weigh less than 35 kg fully grown. To many people - especially where pigs and poultry are not common - meat and milk from microgoats are the primary animal proteins consumed during a lifetime. Perhaps the world's best foragers, goats eat practically anything made of cellulose, and are not dependent on grass.

Because of their unselective feeding behavior, they are capable of living where the feeds - tree leaves, shrubs, and weeds - are too poor to support other types of livestock. Such microgoats deserve wider recognition, for they are often the poor person's only source of milk, meat, and cash income.


They are cheap to acquire and easy to maintain, even by people with little property and scarce resources. Goats generally have a long snout and an upright tail, by which they can be distinguished from most sheep. The mouth is unusual in having a mobile upper lip and a grasping tongue, which permits the animal to nibble even tiny leaves on spiny species.

Common commercial goat breeds generally weigh between 60 and kg, with some weighing more than kg. Microgoats may weigh less than 15 kg. Representative examples are listed at the end of the chapter. The FAO projects that world numbers may nearly double by the turn of the century. Goats are thus not endangered, but in some areas select populations of feral goats are being deliberately eradicated, with the consequent loss of potentially valuable genes.

Some small breeds are also threatened by excessive crossbreeding with larger types. One of the most adaptable of all livestock, goats can persist in conditions from arid to humid, and from sea level to high altitude. They are especially well adapted to hot, semiarid climates and to rocky, barren terrain. These ruminants can subsist on many feedstuffs that would otherwise be left to waste. Although selective browsers, they often prefer coarse leaves including palm fronds and shrubbery to palatable forage grass.

Most microgoats mature quickly, and in the tropics they can generally breed year-round. Their reproductive potential has often been underestimated; kidding is rarely difficult, and many types produce twins and sometimes even triplets or quadruplets. In hot, dry areas, goats require less attention than other livestock, and smaller goats have the added advantage of better heat dissipation.

Some microgoats may also show disease resistance. For example, tolerance to trypanosomiasis makes them an important livestock in many regions of Africa. Goats are generally gentle, but can be easily frightened. They may become stubborn and aggressive when threatened or thwarted, and can prove hard to confine. If their feed smells of other animals - particularly of other goats - they usually shun it unless nothing else is available.

Microgoats mainly produce meat and form an important part of the diet in southern Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America, especially the Caribbean. Goat is sometimes a preferred meat, and there are few social or religious prohibitions against eating it. Some microgoats are good milkers, and under stressful conditions they may keep producing when other livestock are dry. Goat milk is a valuable dietary supplement: it is nutritious, easily digestible, and usually commands premium prices.

It makes excellent cheese and yogurt and can be used by people allergic to cow's milk. Microgoats produce some of the finest and most valuable fibers in the world. Angora and Cashmere goats often weigh less than 30 kg fully grown, for example. Goats produce a fine-textured, durable leather that finds extensive uses both locally and internationally. Horns, hooves, blood, and bone meal also have commercial value. Manure is another important product, and comes in fairly dry pellets that are easy to collect, store, and distribute. Goats perform important functions in land management. Seeds of many trees Acacia and Prosopis, for example are "scarified" by passing through the goats' digestive system, fostering germination and natural revegetation.

With care, goats can also be used to clear land of weeds and brush. Goats are often allowed to roam and scavenge for their own food. They form strong territorial attachments and can be trained to stay within a designated area. However, they cannot be kept from investigating - and quite probably devouring - anything within that territory. They are persistent browsers, so it is essential to prevent overstocking as well as raids on crops. Variety of diet is important, and goats show much individuality in feed preferences.

They are often raised on crop residue and kitchen refuse. Goats can be run with other livestock without creating serious competition. The goats browse weedy shrubs, whereas the sheep and cattle graze more on grasses. Although perhaps the hardiest of all livestock, most breeds benefit when they are provided shelter from rain and high-noon sun. Abrupt chilling and poor ventilation can cause severe respiratory problems.

They are also susceptible to various maladies, such as internal parasites, especially when confined. The highest mortality, however, is caused when very young kids are not supplied with adequate feed and clean, dry shelter. In most developing countries goats are already prominent in rural life.

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Common almost everywhere in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, they are dependable multi-use animals. They are particularly important in providing ready cash, such as for school fees, taxes, marriages, or funerals. Goats integrate well in mixed agriculture, for example, by consuming leafy wastes, clearing land, and contributing fertilizer. In many places they are raised almost exclusively by women and children. If confined, goats require only simple, inexpensive shelters or pens, which makes them especially important as subsistence animals.

In many situations, they may be the most efficient and economic producers for smallholders. These animals have a relatively fast rate of growth and early reproductive age, even under harsh conditions. They can graze rougher terrain than cattle and most sheep, can go for longer periods without water, and forage well in wooded areas where grass is lacking. They can derive most or all of their diet from roughage unusable by humans; high-energy feeds, such as protein supplements or carbohydrate supplements, are usually not needed even to fatten them for slaughter.

Goats are generally healthy and are not affected by many of the parasites and diseases that ravage other livestock. Some resistance to mange, internal parasites, foot-and-mouth disease, and other livestock scourges has been reported. In some places notably, in industrialized nations there is a strong prejudice against goats and goat meat. Many small goats are poor milkers, especially under hardship conditions; however, even small amounts of milk can often fulfill a child's daily nutritional requirement or reinforce a nursing mother's diet.

Goats are independent and may wander away if not watched, and they can be difficult to pen. They may also have an unpleasant odor when kept confined males are particularly malodorous during rutting season. Goats are often disparaged for degrading land and destroying vegetation because they continue to survive on overutilized lands often laid waste by mismanagement of sheep or cattle.

A rare wild animal with spectacular horns, the bezoar Capra aegagrus is the goat's wild ancestor. People domesticated it before B. Until recent times, it remained widely scattered across the vast region between Greece and Pakistan, but it now exists only in pockets and is threatened with extinction. This would be a tragedy because the bezoar is a resilient wild species that crosses readily with domestic goats, and it could pass on its genetic inheritance for heat, drought, and cold tolerance: disease resistance; and other survival qualities.

Distribution of the bezoar. The arrow indicates the area where it was probably first domesticated, resulting in the goat as we know it From Mason Fascinating science and valuable results probably await those willing to study this hardy, handsome creature and to explore the reharnessing of its genetic endowment.

Today the bezoar is considered merely a trophy for hunters. The power of its genes to refresh - perhaps even revolutionize - the world's million goats has been lost to sight. The microgoat's potential has hardly been realized. More research on performance and husbandry is needed to preserve and restore small breeds.

Selective breeding for prolificacy, viability, and rapid growth, as well as more selective on-site culling, could greatly improve both meat and milk yields and quality.

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Management systems that exploit smallness, stabilize production, and preserve the environment should be introduced and publicized in appropriate goat-rearing areas. Careful assessments of indigenous management methods should be made, particularly emphasizing their desirable characteristics.

Improving hygiene in the wet season and supplemental feeding in the dry season are also important, as are disease- and parasite-control measures. The undomesticated ibex and markhor could possibly be major contributors in the development of new, useful breeds for tropical and arid regions see sidebar, page West and Central Africa.

Female 20 kg; male 30 kg. Adapted to humid lowlands, this widespread goat is particularly valuable for meat and skin production. Generally, it is bred for meat, but milk is sometimes an important secondary product. Sexual maturity is very early months , and quadruplets occasionally occur most goat breeds normally produce only single births. United States. A stable miniature variety of the milking Nubian, this microgoat has been developed recently in the United States by crossing standard-sized Nubians with the West African Dwarf.

It combines a good milk output with high levels of butterfat. Derived from the West African Dwarf, it is noted for its hardiness and good nature, good milk production, and adaptability to various climates. There are several varieties, some for milking, others for meat. Southern Sudan. A very hardy desert goat similar to the West African Dwarf, it averages 15 kg, but some mature individuals may weigh as little as 11 kg. Used for meat and hides, it produces little milk. Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania. A widely neglected meat and hide animal found over a wide range, it is fast growing sexual maturity at four months and extremely hardy.

A prolific, year-round breeder raised for meat production, it is often confined in simple shelters from birth to slaughter. Perhaps because of this isolation, mortality is less than 10 percent, even with little or no veterinary care. Latin America. They are often small and hardy. Creole Caribbean. Females 20 kg; males 25 kg. Robust meat goats of Spanish or West African origin that are kept throughout the Caribbean. Crioulo Brazil. A meat and skin goat derived from Portuguese ancestors, it is hardy, prolific, undemanding, and adapted to harsh environments.

Female 20 kg; male 24 kg. Originating in dry regions, this meat and milk goat is a nonseasonal breeder with outstanding potential. Pakistan, India. Females kg; males kg. A prolific, fastgrowing "urban" goat with high twinning and low mortality. Often kept inside houses, they adapt well to confinement and are important for both milk and meat.

Hill districts of northern India. Kept for meat and their long, lustrous white hair, they are pure-breeding and healthy. Kashmir, India. Male 20 kg. A pashmina cashmere goat of India, it is adapted to a high altitude, high humidity climate with extremes of temperature. A very small, hardy animal of the southern lowlands, it kids year-round sometimes twice , and often produces twins. Eastern India and Pakistan. Female 10 kg; male 14 kg.

A widespread, humid-area, meat goat that is early maturing and very prolific. It kids twice a year, and produces 60 percent twins and 10 percent triplets. It produces a superior leather. Southeast Asia, China, and Pacific Islands. In places, less than 20 kg. A widespread, highly variable, hardy goat adapted to humid conditions, it usually has twins or triplets. Used for meat and skins, with exceptional females being milked. Well adapted to the humid tropics, it normally twins and is a good meat producer.

Female 25 kg; male 35 kg. A prolific cold-climate goat with a year-round breeding season. The meat is highly prized, and often sells at a premium due to its supposed health-giving effects. Female 20 kg; male 20 kg. A meat goat, usually black, for harsh desert conditions. Sinai, Egypt and Negev Desert, Israel.

Female 20 kg; male 50 kg. Native to dry, hot deserts, this milk and meat goat matures at months and has a twinning rate over 50 percent. A most important characteristic is its drought tolerance. The female, for instance, can drink only once a day - at a pinch, once every other day - without losing appetite or reducing milk flow. Several wild relatives will cross with the goat. Although essentially unknown to agricultural science, these hybrids may offer a new gene pool for creating new farm animals and for improving the world's goats.

They seem to combine the self-reliance of wild species with the usefulness of domestic ones. Artificial insemination and other modern techniques could make them easier to produce today than ever before. A project in Israel has already produced a cross between the goat and the Nubian ibex Capra ibex. The Sinai Desert goat, the breed that was used, ranks next to the camel in its ability to go without water - it often drinks only twice a week - but its meat has such a strong flavor that most people consider it dreadful.

On the other hand, the ibex is compact and muscular and produces tender, mild meat that steak lovers find delicious.

The product from crossbreeding the two is a creature seemingly able to endure extreme temperatures and drought, make use of poor pasture, and produce wonderful steaks. A herd of several hundred of these hybrids dubbed 'ya-ez" has been created at Kibbutz Lahav in the northern Negev Desert area.

Both sexes are fertile, and they can be bred with each other or with either parent. The meat is already in demand on the menus of elegant Tel Aviv hotels. In Pakistan's northern uplands, it is not uncommon to find hybrids between domestic goats and the mountain goat known as "markhor" Capra falconeri. Each year in Chitral and Gilgit, they can be found in the goat markets.

Markhors inhabit high elevations in rugged mountains and thrive on diets so meager as to be useless to goats. The hybrids are produced when markhor males - perhaps ousted by more dominant males - come in contact with feral domestic goats. However, some farmers raise young markhor and goats together to overcome mutual resistance and produce their own hybrids,.

For a single hybrid animal local goatherds pay up to 5, rupees, a princely sum in this impoverished region. Traditionally, villagers have kept them as stud animals. They appreciate the animal's genetic endowment. Markhors tolerate extremes of cold and snow, are nimble and skilled at escaping predators, and survive on scanty fodder, Moreover, they have a high reproduction potential because they generally produce twins. As a result, they also tend to give more milk and it is rich in nutritive value.

Instead of long body hairs, markhors possess insulating underfur - a soft and valuable raw material for the famous Kashmiri shawls. Apparently, the hybrids can possess many of these qualities together with a calm disposition. Thus they could be useful in themselves and as conduits for passing such traits on to goats. Among the hundreds of breeds of sheep Ovis aries in the world, those weighing less than 35 kg when mature have been largely ignored.

Although these are common, the impression lingers that they are too small to be useful. Yet this virtually untapped gene pool is esnecially well adapted to traditional Third World animal husbandry. Given attention, these "microsheep" could boost meat, milk, skin, wool, and pelt production in many villages and small farms of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Many microsheep thrive in environments that tax the ability of larger breeds to survive.

They are adapted to poor feeds and can be grazed in uncultivated wastelands unsuited to any other livestock except goats or camels. Because of their size, microsheep can fatten in areas where forage is so scattered and sparse that larger animals cannot cover enough ground to fill their bellies each day. In addition, their foraging complements that of other livestock. For example, sheep can graze rough grasses and weeds that cattle find unpalatable.

Some survive even the stress of extreme aridity and for this reason are the predominant livestock in North Africa and the Middle East. Many small breeds can be disease resistant. Some, for example, are widespread in the zones of Africa where trypanosomiasis is prevalent. They are generally less adversely affected by foot-and-mouth disease than are cattle, and some small native sheep seem to have fewer problems with insects and parasites than do most other livestock, including temperate-area sheep.

Giving more attention to the management and improvement of microsheep could pay back abundantly in the form of food, income, and improved land utilization in many parts of the developing world. An average weight for temperate sheep breeds is about 70 kg,' but the smallest microsheep weigh less than 20 kg fully grown. Many tropical microsheep are "hairless," and have little or no wool. These are often difficult to distinguish from goats, but like all sheep they generally have blunter snouts, more fat, and hanging tails.

Some have greatly enlarged rumps or tails that store fat. Unlike goats, sheep have no odor-producing glands. More than one billion sheep occur worldwide, and they occupy every climatic zone in which people live.